In this short volume, I examine the way in which conflicts between King Philip IV of France and Pope Boniface VIII resulted in both the marginalization of the hierocratic vision and the mutation of dualism into something qualitatively different.  My main argument is that in defending the right of the French king to tax the French church and to try French clerics in French courts, the pro-royal polemicists not only realized their goal of demolishing the hierocratic conceptual framework, but in the process quite inadvertently undermined the premises of the dualist-imperialist one as well.  Drawing on a wide range of theological, juristic and philosophical resources available to them they simultaneously developed a new political vision, characterized by novel and distinctive arguments and assumptions regarding the locus, source and character of supreme authority.  While this process was not completed until the middle of the 14th century, by the time of Boniface’s death in 1303 the die had largely been cast.

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